Background: Measuring Complexity¶
It’s obviously most important that an algorithm solves a given problem correctly. How much time an algorithm will take to solve a problem is only slightly less important. All algorithms must terminate eventually, because they wouldn’t be algorithms if they didn’t, but they might run for billions of years before terminating. In order to compare algorithms, we need a way to measure the time required by an algorithm.
To characterize an algorithm, we really need to know how its running
time changes in relation to the size of a problem. If we solve a
problem that’s ten times as large, how does the running time change?
If we run
find_max() on a list that’s a thousand elements long
instead of a hundred elements, does it take the same amount of time?
Does it take 10 times as long to run, 100 times, or 5 times? This is
called the algorithm’s time complexity or, occasionally, its
To measure the time complexity, we could simply implement an algorithm
on a computer and time it on problems of different sizes. For
example, we could run
find_max() on lists from lengths ranging from
1 to 1000 and graph the results.
This is unsatisfactory for two reasons:
- Computers perform different operations at different speeds: addition may be very fast and division very slow. Different computers may have different specialities. One machine may have very fast math but slow string operations while another might do math very slowly. Machines also vary in memory size and processor, memory, and disk speeds. Researchers would find it difficult to compare results measured on different machines.
- Measuring performance within a given range doesn’t tell us if the algorithm continues to scale outside of the range. Perhaps it runs very well for problem sizes up to 1000, but at some larger size it began to run too slowly.
Instead, the measurement is done more abstractly by counting the number of basic operations required to run the algorithm, after defining what is counted as an operation. For example, if you wanted to measure the time complexity of computing a sine function, you might assume that only addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are basic operations. On the other hand, if you were measuring the time to draw a circle, you might include sine as a basic operation.
Complexity is expressed using big-O notation. The complexity is written as O(<some function>), meaning that the number of operations is proportional to the given function multiplied by some constant factor. For example, if an algorithm takes 2*(n**2) operations, the complexity is written as O(n**2), dropping the constant multiplier of 2.
Some of the most commonly seen complexities are:
O(1) is constant-time complexity. The number of operations for the algorithm doesn’t actually change as the problem size increases.
O(log n) is logarithmic complexity. The base used to take the logarithm makes no difference, since it just multiplies the operation count by a constant factor. The most common base is base 2, written as log_2 or lg.
Algorithms with logarithmic complexity cope quite well with increasingly large problems. Doubling the problem size requires adding a fixed number of new operations, perhaps just one or two additional steps.
O(n) time complexity means that an algorithm is linear; doubling the problem size also doubles the number of operations required.
O(n**2) is quadratic complexity. Doubling the problem size multiplies the operation count by four. A problem 10 times larger takes 100 times more work.
O(n**3), O(n**4), O(n**5), etc. are polynomial complexity.
O(2**n) is exponential complexity. Increasing the problem size by 1 unit doubles the work. Doubling the problem size squares the work. The work increases so quickly that only the very smallest problem sizes are feasible.
The following graph compares the growth rates of various time complexities.
When writing down big-O notation, we can keep only the fastest-growing
term and drop slower-growing terms. For example, instead of writing
O(n**2 + 10n + 5), we drop the lower terms and write only O(n**2).
The smaller terms don’t contribute very much to the growth of the
n increases. If
n increases by a factor of 100,
n**2 term increases the work by a factor of 10,000. The
increase of 1000 operations from the
10n term dwindles to
After correctness, time complexity is usually the most interesting property of an algorithm, but in certain cases the amount of memory or storage space required by an algorithm is also of interest. These quantities are also expressed using big-O notation. For example, one algorithm might have O(n) time and use no extra memory while another algorithm might take only O(1) time by using O(n) extra storage space. In this case, the best algorithm to use will vary depending on the environment where you’re going to be running it. A cellphone has very little memory, so you might choose the first algorithm in order to use as little memory as possible, even if it’s slower. Current desktop computers usually have gigabytes of memory, so you might choose the second algorithm for greater speed and live with using more memory.
Big-O notation is an upper bound, expressing the worst-case time required to run an algorithm on various inputs. Certain inputs, however, may let the algorithm run more quickly. For example, an algorithm to search for a particular item in a list may be lucky and find a match on the very first item it tries. The work required in the best-case speed may therefore be much less than that required in the worst case.
Another notation is used for the best-case time, big-omega notation.
If an algorithm is Omega(<some function>), the best-case time
is proportional to the function multiplied by some constant factor.
For example, the quicksort
algorithm discussed later in this book is Omega(n lg n) and O(n**2).
For most inputs quicksort requires time proportional to
n lg n,
but for certain inputs time proportional to
n**2 will be
Big-theta notation combines both upper and lower bounds; if an algorithm is both O(function) and Omega(function), it is also Theta(function). The function is therefore a tight bound on both the upper and lower limits of the running time.
Usually the worst case is what we’re interested in. It’s important that we know the longest possible time an algorithm might take so that we can determine if we can solve problems within a reasonable time. Occasionally encountering a particular input that can be solved more quickly may be lucky when it happens, but it can’t be relied upon, so the best-case time usually isn’t very relevant. For most of the algorithms in this book, only the O() bound will discussed.